Unless otherwise mentioned, each was measured using seven-point Likert-type scales.
- Student learning was measured using Alavi's (1994) six-item scale.
- The variables in the TAM (Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of a technology): modified previously used scales by having them refer specifically to the LearningSpace software package.
- measured perceived flexibility with an eight-item scale used in recent studies of Internet-based courses (Arbaugh, 2010a) focusing on the course's format and their ability to arrange their involvement in the course around work, family, and travel. Factor analysis of these items identified two variables: (1) course flexibil-ity,or the ability to arrange the work of the individual course around other activities; and (2) program flexibility, or the ability to arrange the course to serve a student's needs to complete the entire degree program.
- measured interaction with eleven items that assessed learner-interface, learner-learner and learner-instructor interaction (Hill-manet al., 1994; Thach & Murphy, 1995). The factor analysis of these items identified three variables: (1) Instructor emphasis on interaction; (2) ease of interaction,which focused on the lack of difficulty of participating in and following class discussions; (3) classroom dynamics
- measured student engagement in Internet-based courses by calculating the amount of time students spent on the course Web-site.
- used gender, student age and the number of Internet-based courses the student had taken prior to participating in this study as control variables.